At breakfast, the spouses share their household chores: “Shpulka makes a saltz!” Russians who come to Germany to visit relatives and friends are confused by such phrases. But a person who has lived here for some time (not necessarily for a long time) is surprised by something else: “What is not clear?”.
Of course, this is not in Russian. And not in German. It is a compact mixture of both languages. In Russian it would be: "The dishwasher signals that the cleaning salt ends in the drain." How much easier surzhikovy option! You just need to know what a “sham”, “charm”, “salz” are. Living in Germany knows. Even from diligent cramming of the language it does not depend - life will teach.
I remember that in the first months after moving to Germany, when we bought the car, the neighbor in the hotel where the settlers lived, he asked authoritatively: “Did you do headlight tests?” He had not had time to learn the German Probefahrt, but he knew that when buying a car you need to do this very "sample". Life has taught!
Surzhik - bread made from mixed flour, usually made from wheat and rye. In eastern Ukraine, mixed Russian-Ukrainian dialect is called surzhik. “Skilki you years?” - ask its carriers.
In Germany, where immigrants from the former Soviet Union and their descendants make up about five percent of the population, their surzhik could not fail to form. Some people call him "Quel", probably from Quelle (German source). But most carriers of such a language have a deep egal, as it is called. It is necessary - they use the language mixture, it is not necessary - they speak Russian or German, depending on the audience.
Dishwasher (from Spülmaschnine) - Dishwasher
The formation of the Russian-German surzhik is influenced by various factors, it has different roots, different sources. Families of Russian Germans who kept their lifestyle and, if possible, the language, brought their surzhik to Germany: German grammatical constructions with Russian nouns denoting those concepts that were not in the old German. “I’m arbite in kindergarten ...”, “Do kaufst fridge ...”, “Ayr Firth to the collective farm ...”
For those whose native language is Russian, in-depth study of German contributes, on the contrary, to spontaneous adaptation of Russian grammar to German vocabulary. Hence, for example, juicy verb forms: “sshparit” (save), “nashvartsevat” (earn the left way), “ausmakhat term” (make an appointment). Or the characteristic verb tracing from German: “put antrag” (and not submit an application).
Tailor-made people are guided by the ear, recognizing the familiar in the unfamiliar, due to which funny “headlight tests” appear.
Long living in Germany and speaking mainly in German, on the contrary, German concepts are Germanized. I once met a married couple who moved to Germany thirty years earlier from the same city as me. “We lived there on Schulstraße!” It is clear that there was no Schulstraße and no, but there is Shkolnaya street.
Some researchers of surzhik in Germany (although, admittedly, there are only a few of them) proceed from the fact that this is some kind of intermediate “newspeak” necessary to quickly fit into a new environment. That, they say, already in the second generation, the emigrants speak excellent German and do not need a surzhik.
So, not so. For hundreds of thousands of families settled in Germany, Surzhik has become a "home speech" that all generations in the house readily use. And outside the family this is the “corporate” jargon of people with common roots and similar interests. Finally, this is a special sphere of linguistic creativity, which allows using “mixed” means to achieve such results, even purely expressive ones, which cannot be achieved with any other language. What are, for example, "arbaytslezy" (from him. Arbeitslose - the unemployed).