Hello! Today I want to tell you about the system of primary and school education in Germany. Why this particular topic? I have been on the project for 7 months now and I am passing it in kindergarten, so I come across this topic every day.
Education in Germany consists of 3 levels: pre-school, secondary and higher education - the classical system.
Pre-school education differs from the one I received in Belarus. Children in the kindergarden can be given away when they already have 1 year. But you need to look for places in advance. Parents, even before the birth of a child, begin to look for a place for their future child in kindergarten. While in Belarus, children are given to the garden only from 3 years of age. Remembering my kindergarten, I remember exactly that in my 5 years I could read, and we did quite a lot staff there, started learning letters, even had English classes, and of course mathematics. That is, I already went to school with a base. (I do not know exactly how this is happening now). Here, children only play. In kindergartens, educators teach children through games, communication, master classes (Angeboten), we also teach der / die / das and that's it. I also constantly do something with children and I can say that it is not so simple.
Each kindergarden has its own concept. There are “ordinary” kindergartens, there are those that are aimed at the creative development of the child, for example, there are Russian-German kindergartens or book kindergardens (Buchkindergarten) in which children make books, postcards, posters and everything else. Leipzig also has a garden, the concept of which is “Forest”. Children all the time in the park or in the woods. Even in winter, in rain and bad weather. For me, this is new.
Due to the fact that there are now many immigrants in Germany, children who have reached the age of four take a test of German knowledge. The one who did not cope with the task must attend free extra classes.
School education in Germany is universal and absolutely free. But also mandatory. If the school finds out that the child does not attend school, then they will talk to their parents, if that does not help, then it is more than possible that the police will take care of the family. Also, parents need to plan vacation so that the child does not miss school.
Be sure to study 10 years. But in general, the school system is designed for 12-13 years. And in school education has its own units: primary, secondary, 1st and 2nd levels. Children who have reached the age of six begin primary school education (Grundschule). Primary school education lasts four years. Due to the fact that now in Germany.
After primary school there is also a distribution of children. Weak students go to the “Head School” (Hauptschule). Education lasts only 5 years. Purpose: preparation for unskilled professional activities. After graduating from school, the student chooses between work and continuing studies in the field of vocational education.
Those who got average results go to the “Real school” (Realschule) and study there for 6 years. After graduation, there is also a choice between work, or you can finish grades 11-12 in gymnasiums. After the gymnasium, the student receives a certificate of maturity with which he can enter the university.
The pupil can receive the second stage of secondary education only in a gymnasium in grades 11-12. Grade 13 is considered preparatory to the university. At the end, students take an exam in core subjects (Abitur). The level of education in such classes is very high. But there are no entrance exams to higher educational institutions, and they are accepted on the basis of the average grade for the certificate.
In Belarus, the school system is markedly different. Earlier it was that after elementary school, everyone passed the exam, the strongest go to the “A” class, the rest go to the “B”, “C” and so on. Then, such a system was canceled, and everyone just switched without exams from primary to secondary school.
But what remains is that after elementary school, parents can take their child to the gymnasium, where the level of education is higher than in regular school. But I am more than confident that in Germany in any school, in a big city or in a small one, the level of teaching, and the qualifications of teachers are equally high. While I can confidently say that this is not so in Belarus. In small towns, teachers do not worry about how they teach children whether they will gain knowledge or not.