I think European youth will be very interested in learning about the history of design in order to leverage their knowledge in architecture and design.
Few areas can boast such exact dates of origin and care "in the shade." The Biedermeier style was formed in 1815 and reigned in European dwellings until 1848. The rustic simplicity of the hip-foot, comfort with a slight touch of sentimentality replaced classicism with its cold stateliness, highlighting comfort and good mood. Such a setting was a reaction to previous historical events - the Franco-Prussian war, the instability of the internal situation. Biedermeier expressed the bourgeoisie's desire for calmness, for a peaceful existence, the desire to retire and hide from anxiety in his home, with his family.
The interiors of the Biedermeier era are characterized by simple uncomplicated forms, light warm colors. In furniture, quality, durability and convenience were most valued, so frilly ornaments in the form of carved armrests are a thing of the past. But they began to be used quite bright upholstery and curtains.
An interesting novelty of Biedermeier is the tradition to equip an additional room in the house, which was closed all week and opened only on weekends for family tea-drinking or reception.
As is often the case in art, the name Biedermeier is sarcastic in nature, and was given style by its opponents who tried to criticize the new trend. The word "Biedermeier" comes from the pseudonym of the German poet Ludwig Eichrodt. Under the signature "Gottlieb Biedermeier" he published parody poems written on behalf of the simple-minded man in the street. The name "Biedermeier" contained a hint of philistinism, but, as often happens, the word stuck and became a symbol of an era in decor.
What is called the Art Nouveau in Germany is known in Russia as the Art Nouveau style. Art nouveau becomes the leading trend of design at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries.
One of the founders of the trend was, obviously, unwittingly, the Belgian architect and artist Henry van de Velde, who created innovative pieces of furniture. The term “art nouveau” many magazines of the time referred to “cheap” attempts by mass furniture manufacturers to imitate the works of van de Velde.
External signs of art nouveau in the decor - curved lines, floral ornaments, the rejection of symmetry, the desire for natural, "natural" forms. Unlike Biedermeier, supporters of art nouveau again begin to pay special attention to details: for example, decorate door handles, armrests, furniture legs with carved patterns.
Art Nouveau is associated with the desire of artists to combine art and life, to bring elements of beauty into everyday life. During this period, a special relationship to interior design is formed: it becomes an important area of creativity for many artists.
The Bauhaus style refers to functionalism in design and architecture. This name comes from the name of the Weimar School of Art, opened in 1919 by Walter Gropius. This school became famous for its innovative approach to learning: the main idea was to combine art and craft.
It can be said that the Bauhaus style was a deliberate departure from art nouveau, resistance to its principles. Bauhaus is a manifesto that the main thing in design, architecture and decor is functionality. "The function determines the form" - the main motto of the interior decor of this era. The furniture should be durable, comfortable and inexpensive, the room - spacious. Such practical inventions as wardrobes and built-in furniture is also a Bauhaus merit.
It is believed that the Soviet constructivism of the 1920s - 1930s was formed precisely under the influence of German functionalism. However, the ideas of Bauhaus after World War II became especially popular - probably, again, due to the economic and social conditions in which people lived in post-war Europe.
In the 70s, new trends came to replace the ideas of the Bauhaus, again seeking to introduce elements of fine arts into design. But in the 1990s, due to the growth of environmental awareness, the ideas of moderate consumption and economical management of resources, the simple and even minimalistic Bauhaus comes to the fore again.
I consider knowing the history of architecture of Europe is very important for young Europeans, because walking along the street, not every young person can distinguish the style of architecture and indicate in which year or in what epoch a building was built. Plus, now in Europe it is very popular to take old facades, empty them, and insert modern elements into it (transparent walls, glass stairs, loft design elements and others). The ability to combine such different styles, in my opinion it seems very cool and looks quite harmonious.